Don't read past here. Just a copy and paste... Resting Cardiovascular Changes Observed After Endurance Training • Training Cardiac Hypertrophy • (Greater vent. cavity size) • Greater Blood Volume • Lower [Hgb], Hct PV increases more than RBC Vol. • Greater Capillary Density • Greater PNS (vagal) tone • Lower SNS influence • No Q change. ‘ • Lower HR • Greater PNS/Lower SAS • Greater SV • Bigger cavity Size • Longer filling time SUBMAXIMAL ENDURANCE • Cardiac Output during the same submaximal exercise is the same after Endurance Training. • Increased SV • Decreased HR • Muscle blood flow is lower after Endurance Training. • Increased liver/skin flow • VO2 Not Changed • (a-v)O2 diff is higher MAXIMAL ENDURANCE • Cardiac Output is Higher o Stroke Volume is higher • Increased Pre-Load (longer filling time, More Plasma) • Smaller After-Load o HR doesn’t change • Muscle Blood flow is higher • (a-v)o2 difference is higher • V02Max is higher o Increased Cardiac Output (Greater SV) o Increased (a-v)o2 Diff • Increased muscle blood flow, capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin • The Greater VO2max with training is due to roughly equivalent increases in Q, (a-v)O2 diff [VO2max = Qmax x maximal (a-v)O2 diff] o Trained people deliver more O2 because of Greater pumping capacity of the heart, rather than by increasing the CaO2. • Genetics accounts for ~40% of the differences observed in VO2max. o Effects of Endurance Training on The Heart o Lower resting heart rate o Lower heart rate for standardized, submaximal exercise o Faster recovery of heart rate after standardized exercise o Higher blood volume pumped per heart beat (stroke volume) o Higher size of heart muscle (cardiac hypertrophy) o Greater blood supply to heart muscle o Greater strength of contraction of the heart • Effects of Endurance Training on The Blood Vessels and Blood Chemistry o Reduced resting systolic & diastolic pressures o Reduced risk of atherosclerosis o Serum lipids o Lower blood triglycerides o Lower total cholesterol o Lower LDL cholesterol o Higher HDL cholesterol o Greater blood supply to muscles o Greater blood volume • Improved glucose tolerance o Greater sensitivity of cells to insulin o Lower insulin secretion in response to glucose
• Endurance Training increases Mitochondrial Power • Endurance trained muscle has more: o [Myoglobin] o Size of Mitochondria o Number of Mitochondria o TCA Enzymes o Enzymes for Fatty Acid Oxidation o Enzymes of Ketone Oxidation o Electron Transport Enzymes o Malate Aspartate Shuttle • The increase in mitochondrial enzymes allows muscle to breakdown Fatty Acids faster o Allows muscle to use 02 faster • Endurance trained muscle has less of Most Glycolytic Enzymes: o PFK o Phosphorylase o Total LDH o LDH-M • More Heart Type LDH • Biochemical Changes in Skeletal Muscle After Endurance Training o Capillaries (increased capillary density*) o Muscle [Glycogen] o Muscle [Triglyceride] o Decreased SympathoAdrenal Activity o Decreased Blood [Epinephrine] • Endurance trained people can increase their VO2 more quickly when they start exercising
Got out of a final a few hours back.. picked up a six pack and chilled over at a buddy's place for a few hours and relaxed. Couldn't switch gears into another subject after the final I took.. my mind is absolutely shred to pieces.